The Singapore River has been the centre of trade since modern Singapore was founded in 1819. During the colonial era, Boat Quay was the commercial centre where barge lighters would transport goods upstream to warehouses at Clarke Quay. At the height of its prosperity, dozens of bumboats jostled for mooring space beside Clarke Quay. This continued well into the latter half of the twentieth century. Clarke Quay was named after Sir Andrew Clarke, the Governor of the Straits Settlements who was responsible for the signing of the famous Pangkor Treaty in 1874 by which the British intervened in the Malay States, first with Perak and later with the rest of the Malay States. Venice’s strategic location, just like Singapore contributed to its development to its city state and rise as a maritime empire. Singapore had no natural resources and little land for agriculture. Therefore, we depended heavily on maritime trade. This is exactly what the Venetians did as well. They used innovative methods to ensure that they would prosper, for example, constructing a system to ensure that they would have a steady supply of water. Venice was able to monopolize the spice trade as the early Venetians took advantage of their knowledge in salt-making. Venice was very active in trading, for valuable goods. As early as the 7th century, it was regarded as an arising trade power. By having lower taxes and their ability to bring in highly-prized spices from the East, the Venetians were able to keep a competitive edge over their competitors. The Venetians also possessed an enterprising spirit, which made them rich. The wealth created by trading with Asia made Venice one of the greatest cities in Europe. Just like Singapore, Venice grew to be a cosmopolitan country from what was practically a mangrove. It has survived trying times and grown into a great city-state of its time.